Keep your eyes on José Padilha, the director whose movies dissect the social mechanisms that perpetuate violence and poverty. His latest work, “Garapa” (the sugar cane juice used to conceal hunger when one has nothing else to eat), will be representing Brazil at the Sundance Festival, the biggest showcase of independent movies. The film follows three starving families during a month. It is in black & white, has minimal interventions and no soundtrack. It obviously disregards mainstream moviegoers but those willing to pay to get depressed on the way to enlightenment.
Padilha´s films are consistently disturbing. His first feature as a director, “Bus 174” (Ônibus 174), recalls an episode where police intervention converted the robbery of a city bus into a tragedy.
Then, he produced “Estamira“, that depicts a schizophrenic woman who has lived for decades in a landfill in Rio. In 2007, he was widely acclaimed by “Elite Squad” (Tropa de Elite), the fictional portrait, in all hues of red, of the clashes between the police and dealers based in the favelas (shantytowns) of Rio. An estimate of 11 million people watched the pirate version of the movie – the rumour is that allowing piracy was part of its promotional strategy. It seems to have worked – it was a blockbuster in movie theaters and gave Padilha the Golden Bear of the Berlin International Film Festival.
Check this interview with Padilha on “Garapa” during the Tribeca Film Festival, in New York
Brazilian women stay slim, while men are getting fatter and fatter. Mal-nutrition and child mortality are falling, but diabetes is on the raise.
This is one of the conclusions of a study released today by the Brazilian Health Ministry, portraying the state of the population’s physical condition.
The conclusions are, for the most part, positive. Here, a quick summary of the main conclusions:
• Weight – Around 43% of those over 18 living in state capitals are overweight. The reality in smaller cities and in the countryside is similar. The Ministry blames unhealthy eating habits and the reduction in physical activities. Boys from 10 to 19 years-old increased their Body Mass Index in 82.2% in only 29 years. The girls of the same age had a growth of 70.3% in their BMI. The good news: women kept their weight stable since the 90s. Obesity is specially intense among poorest populations.
• Height – Brazilians are growing fast – women twice as fast as men. The average male raised 1.9 centimeters (0.75 inches) and is, in average, 1.70 meters (5.57 feet) tall. The average woman grew 3,3 centimeters (1.29 inches) to 1.58 meters ( 5.18 feet).
• Diabetes – The growth of obesity is raising the number of deaths of diabetes, mainly among men older than 40. On the other hand, less women under 20 and 39 are diabetic.
• Cardiovascular health– Less Brazilians are dying of heart diseases. It fell 20.5% between 1990 and 2006. The Health Ministry believes this is because the population is more educated and there is a growing effort to prevent those diseases.
• Mal-nutrition – The number of undernourished kids under five fell 50% in in 10 years – from 13.4% of the total to 6.7%, in 2006. According to the Health Ministry, mal-nutrition might be totally eliminated in Brazil in a period of 10 or 15 years.
• Diarrhea – The number of kids under one year old that die of diarrhea – normally related to the fact part of the population doesn’t have access to treated water and is exposed to uncollected sewage – fell 93.9% in 25 years. It used to be the second main cause of infant mortality in the country. Now it is the fourth (most deaths are associated to congenital diseases or postpartum problems). In 1990, the index of child mortality used to be 47.1 deaths per thousand babies born alive. In 2007, it was around 19.3 deaths – a reduction of 59,7%.
This is a very interesting evolution. Nevertheless, it is hard to understand how the cardiovascular diseases were controlled, while overweight and diabetes are not. Could you come up with some logical explanation?